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Bankstown Hospital - Grand Rounds - Further Reading

A guide to further information resources to support Grand Rounds and vocational education


Get to Know: Staphylococcus aureus


Welcome to the Grand Rounds Further Reading List, Infectious Diseases edition, brought to you by the Clinical Library, on Level 4, next to the Auditorium.

This library guide is to help support you in your professional development. Please give us feedback so we can improve this list in the future.

If you are presenting at a later Grand Rounds, please contact and tell us about the content of your paper so we can add appropriate resources to the list for when you present your paper.

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Journal Articles


Howden, B. P., et al. (2023). "Staphylococcus aureus host interactions and adaptation." Nature Reviews Microbiology 21(6): 380-395

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            Invasive Staphylococcus aureus infections are common, causing high mortality, compounded by the propensity of the bacterium to develop drug resistance. S. aureus is an excellent case study of the potential for a bacterium to be commensal, colonizing, latent or disease-causing; these states defined by the interplay between S. aureus and host. This interplay is multidimensional and evolving, exemplified by the spread of S. aureus between humans and other animal reservoirs and the lack of success in vaccine development. In this Review, we examine recent advances in understanding the S. aureus–host interactions that lead to infections. We revisit the primary role of neutrophils in controlling infection, summarizing the discovery of new immune evasion molecules and the discovery of new functions ascribed to well-known virulence factors. We explore the intriguing intersection of bacterial and host metabolism, where crosstalk in both directions can influence immune responses and infection outcomes. This Review also assesses the surprising genomic plasticity of S. aureus, its dualism as a multi-mammalian species commensal and opportunistic pathogen and our developing understanding of the roles of other bacteria in shaping S. aureus colonization.

Kouijzer, I. J. E., et al. (2023). "Redefining Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia: A structured approach guiding diagnostic and therapeutic management." Journal of Infection 86(1): 9-13

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            The current duration of therapy in patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) is based on differentiating complicated from uncomplicated disease. While this approach allows clinicians and investigators to group SAB patients into broadly similar clinical categories, it fails to account for the intrinsic heterogeneity of SAB. This is due in part to the fact that risk factors for metastatic infection and confirmed metastatic infection are considered as equivalent in most scoring systems. In this viewpoint, we propose a two-step system of categorizing patients with SAB. Initially, patients with SAB would be categorized as ‘high risk’ or ‘low risk’ for metastatic infection based upon an initial set of diagnostic procedures. In the second step, patients identified as ‘high-risk’ would undergo additional diagnostic evaluation. The results of this stepwise diagnostic evaluation would define a ‘final clinical diagnosis’ to inform an individualized final treatment plan.

Lam, J. C. and W. Stokes (2023). "The Golden Grapes of Wrath – Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia: A Clinical Review." The American Journal of Medicine 136(1): 19-26

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            Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia is common and associated with fatality rates approximating 25%. We provide a brief overview of S. aureus bacteremia from a clinical and microbiological lens and review the relevant evidence and literature gaps in its management. Using a case-based approach, evidence and clinical judgement are meshed to highlight and justify the 5 core interventions that ought to be performed for all cases of S. aureus bacteremia: 1) appropriate anti-staphylococcal therapy, 2) screening echocardiography, 3) assessment for metastatic phenomena and source control, 4) decision on duration of antimicrobial therapy, and 5) Infectious Diseases consultation.

Tuon, F. F., et al. (2023). "Antimicrobial Treatment of Staphylococcus aureus Biofilms." Antibiotics 12(1): 87

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Staphylococcus aureus is a microorganism frequently associated with implant-related infections, owing to its ability to produce biofilms. These infections are difficult to treat because antimicrobials must cross the biofilm to effectively inhibit bacterial growth. Although some antibiotics can penetrate the biofilm and reduce the bacterial load, it is important to understand that the results of routine sensitivity tests are not always valid for interpreting the activity of different drugs. In this review, a broad discussion on the genes involved in biofilm formation, quorum sensing, and antimicrobial activity in monotherapy and combination therapy is presented that should benefit researchers engaged in optimizing the treatment of infections associated with S. aureus biofilms.