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Bankstown Hospital - Grand Rounds - Further Reading

A guide to further information resources to support Grand Rounds and vocational education


Welcome to the Grand Rounds Further Reading List, Drug Health edition, brought to you by the Clinical Library, on Level 4, next to the Auditorium.

This library guide is to help support you in your professional development. Please give us feedback so we can improve this list in the future.

If you have any questions, please contact the Clinical Library on 9722 8250 or email or visit us Monday to Fridays, 8.30am - 5.00pm. (closed Wednesday afternoons from 1.00pm to 5.00pm)

Ordering Journal Articles from the Bankstown Clinical Library

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“Care Navigation DHS: Showcase of Service and

Case Presentation


Acheson, L. S., et al. (2023). "Pharmacological treatment for methamphetamine withdrawal: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials." Drug and Alcohol Review 42(1): 7-19. PDF @LINK

                Abstract Issues Cessation of methamphetamine use may result in a characteristic withdrawal syndrome, no medication has been approved for this indication. This systematic review aims to assess the efficacy of pharmacotherapy for methamphetamine withdrawal, the first comprehensive meta-analysis since 2008. Approach MEDLINE (1966–2020), CINAHL (1982–2020), PsychINFO (1806–2020) and EMBASE (1947–2020) were systematically searched. Studies were included if they were randomised controlled trials (RCT) investigating pharmacological treatments for methamphetamine withdrawal, reviewing outcomes of treatment discontinuation, mental health outcomes, withdrawal symptoms (including craving) and patient safety. The relative risk (RR) and weighted mean difference (MD) were used to meta-analyse dichotomous and continuous data respectively, with 95% confidence intervals. Risk of bias and Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) assessments were conducted. Key Findings Nine RCTs of six medications (n = 242 participants) met inclusion criteria, however, only six trials of four medications (n = 186) could be meta-analysed. Mean sample size across studies was 27 participants, and 88% of participants were male. The quality of evidence in this review varies from low to very low on GRADE assessments. Amineptine may reduce discontinuation rates (RR 0.22, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.07, 0.72, p = 0.01), and improve global state (MD −0.49, 95% CI −0.80, −0.17), compared with placebo, however, this medication is no longer approved. No other medications improved any domain when compared with placebo. Due to lack of reporting safety profiles could not be established. Conclusions There is insufficient evidence to indicate any medication is effective for the treatment of methamphetamine withdrawal. The poor quality of the evidence indicates a need for better powered, high-quality trials.

Clay, S., et al. (2024). "The reflections of health service providers on implementing contingency management for methamphetamine use disorder in Australia." Drug and Alcohol Review PDF @ LINK

                Abstract Introduction Contingency management (CM) is the most effective treatment for reducing methamphetamine use. We sought to understand why CM has not been taken up to manage methamphetamine use disorder in Australia. Methods Six focus groups (4–8 participants per group) were conducted with health workers from agencies in Australia that provided drug-related health care to people who use methamphetamine. These agencies had no previous experience delivering CM for substance use. The potential acceptability and feasibility of implementing CM in their services were discussed. Results Participants felt that it would be beneficial to have an evidence-based treatment for methamphetamine use disorder. This sentiment was offset by concerns that CM conflicted with a client-centred harm-reduction approach and that it dictated the goal of treatment as abstinence. It was also perceived as potentially coercive and seen to reify the power imbalance in the therapeutic relationship and therefore potentially reinforce stigma. There was also concern about the public's perception and the political acceptability of CM, who would fund CM, and the inequity of providing incentives only to clients with a methamphetamine use disorder. Some concerns could be ameliorated if the goals and structure of CM could be tailored to a client's needs. Discussion and Conclusions Many healthcare workers were keen to offer CM as an effective treatment option for people with methamphetamine use disorder, but CM would need to be sufficiently flexible to allow it to be tailored to client needs and implemented in a way that did not adversely impact the therapeutic relationship.

Lee, K. S. K., et al. (2023). "Beliefs and attitudes of drug and alcohol clinicians when considering referral of Aboriginal clients to involuntary drug and alcohol treatment: A qualitative study." Drug and Alcohol Review 42(1): 169-180. PDF @ LINK

                Abstract Introduction Involuntary drug and alcohol treatment occurs in many countries and its role is often controversial. This can be a particular concern in relation to First Nations or other culturally distinct populations. This study explores beliefs and attitudes of drug and alcohol clinicians when considering referral of Aboriginal Australians to involuntary drug and alcohol treatment in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Methods The Involuntary Drug and Alcohol Treatment program (IDAT) is legislated by the NSW Drug and Alcohol Treatment Act 2007. There are two IDAT units—in urban (Sydney, four beds) and regional NSW (Orange, eight beds). NSW Health drug and alcohol clinicians who had referred clients to IDAT between 2016 and 2018 were invited to participate in a semi-structured 1:1 interview. Eleven clinicians (n = 2, male) from six local health districts (urban through to remote) agreed to participate. A descriptive qualitative analysis of responses was conducted. Results Two key themes summarised the beliefs and attitudes that clinicians reported influencing them when considering referral of Aboriginal Australians to involuntary drug and alcohol treatment in NSW: (i) dilemma between saving someone's life and being culturally safe; and (ii) need for holistic wrap-around care. Discussion and Conclusions Almost all clinicians were worried that being in IDAT would further erode their Aboriginal client's autonomy and be retraumatising. Strategies are needed to support the involvement of Aboriginal-specific services in IDAT processes and ensure local support options for clients on discharge. Future research should examine the effectiveness, acceptability and feasibility of involuntary drug and alcohol treatment programs.

Paulus, M. P. and J. L. Stewart (2020). "Neurobiology, Clinical Presentation, and Treatment of Methamphetamine Use Disorder: A Review." JAMA Psychiatry 77(9): 959-966. REQUEST THIS ARTICLE

                IMPORTANCE: The prevalence of and mortality associated with methamphetamine use has doubled during the past 10 years. There is evidence suggesting that methamphetamine use disorder could be the next substance use crisis in the United States and possibly worldwide. OBSERVATION: The neurobiology of methamphetamine use disorder extends beyond the acute effect of the drug as a monoaminergic modulator and includes intracellular pathways focused on oxidative stress, neurotoxic and excitotoxic effects, and neuroinflammation. Similarly, the clinical picture extends beyond the acute psychostimulatory symptoms to include complex cardiovascular and cerebrovascular signs and symptoms that need to be identified by the clinician. Although there are no pharmacologic treatments for methamphetamine use disorder, cognitive behavioral therapy, behavioral activation, and contingency management show modest effectiveness. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: There is a need to better understand the complex neurobiology of methamphetamine use disorder and to develop interventions aimed at novel biological targets. Parsing the disorder into different processes (eg, craving or mood-associated alterations) and targeting the neural systems and biological pathways underlying these processes may lead to greater success in identifying disease-modifying interventions. Finally, mental health professionals need to be trained in recognizing early cardiovascular and cerebrovascular warning signs to mitigate the mortality associated with methamphetamine use disorder.

Quinn, B., et al. (2021). "A prospective cohort of people who use methamphetamine in Melbourne and non-metropolitan Victoria, Australia: Baseline characteristics and correlates of methamphetamine dependence." Drug and Alcohol Review 40(7): 1239-1248. PDF @ LINK

                Abstract Introduction and Aims Limited research has investigated methamphetamine use and related harms in rural and regional Australia. We investigated whether people who used methamphetamine in non-metropolitan Victoria differed in their sociodemographics and were more likely to be methamphetamine-dependent than those recruited in Melbourne. Design and Methods We used baseline data from an ongoing prospective cohort study, ‘VMAX’. Participants were recruited from Melbourne and three non-metropolitan Victorian regions. Sequential multivariable logistic regression of nested models assessed unadjusted and adjusted associations between residential locations and methamphetamine dependence. Results The sample mostly (77%) comprised people who used methamphetamine via non-injecting means (N = 744). Thirty-nine percent were female. Melbourne-based participants were less likely than non-metropolitan participants to identify as Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander, be heterosexual, have children and be unemployed. More frequent methamphetamine use (adjusted odds ratio 1.22, 95% confidence interval 1.12–1.34) and using crystal methamphetamine versus ‘speed’ powder (adjusted odds ratio 2.38, 95% confidence interval 1.26–3.64) were independently (P < 0.05) associated with being classified as methamphetamine-dependent. A significantly higher percentage of participants in every non-metropolitan region were classified as methamphetamine-dependent vs. those in Melbourne, but this relationship was attenuated when adjusting for methamphetamine use frequency and primary form used. Despite 65% of participants being classified as methamphetamine-dependent, less than half had recently (past year) accessed any professional support for methamphetamine, with minimal variation by recruitment location. Discussions and Conclusions VMAX participants in non-metropolitan Victoria were more likely to be methamphetamine-dependent than those living in Melbourne. Unmet need for professional support appears to exist among people using methamphetamine across the state, regardless of geographical location.

Siefried, K. J., et al. (2020). "Pharmacological Treatment of Methamphetamine/Amphetamine Dependence: A Systematic Review." CNS Drugs 34(4): 337-365. REQUEST THIS ARTICLE

                Stimulant drugs are second only to cannabis as the most widely used class of illicit drug globally, accounting for 68 million past-year consumers. Dependence on amphetamines (AMPH) or methamphetamine (MA) is a growing global concern. Yet, there is no established pharmacotherapy for AMPH/MA dependence. A comprehensive assessment of the research literature on pharmacotherapy for AMPH/MA dependence may inform treatment guidelines and future research directions.


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