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Bankstown Hospital - Grand Rounds - Further Reading

A guide to further information resources to support Grand Rounds and vocational education


Welcome to the Grand Rounds Further Reading List, Endocrinology edition, brought to you by the Clinical Library, on Level 4, next to the Auditorium.

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"Acromegaly and Pregnancy"

Journal Articles

Bandeira, D. B., et al. (2022). "Acromegaly and pregnancy: a systematic review and meta-analysis." Pituitary 25(3): 352-362 MEDLINE

PURPOSE: To evaluate the association between acromegaly and pregnancy in terms of disease activity, maternal and fetal outcomes.

METHODS: This systematic review was conducted according to the Joanna Briggs Institute methodology for systematic reviews of etiology and risk. We focused on observational studies that included pregnant women with acromegaly. The outcomes were acromegaly activity, preterm birth, gestational diabetes, hypertension, eclampsia/preeclampsia, miscarriage, perinatal mortality, low birthweight, small for gestational age, and congenital malformations. Embase, Medline, LILACS, and CENTRAL were our source databases. To perform proportional meta-analyses, we used Stata Statistical Software 17.

RESULTS: Nineteen studies were included encompassing a total of 273 pregnancies in 211 women with acromegaly. The overall frequency of control of acromegaly during pregnancy was 62%, and of tumor growth was 9%. No fetal or maternal deaths were reported. The overall frequency of worsening of previous diabetes or development of gestational diabetes was 9%, and of previous hypertension or preeclampsia/eclampsia was 6%. The overall frequency of premature labor was 9% [from 17 studies of 263 pregnancies; 95% confidence interval (CI), 5-13%]; of spontaneous miscarriage was 4% (from 19 studies of 273 pregnancies; 95% CI, 2-11%); of small for gestational age was 5% (from 15 studies of 216 newborns; 95% CI, 3-9%); and of congenital malformations was 1% (from 18 studies of 240 newborns; 95% CI, 0-7%).

CONCLUSION: Pregnancy in women with acromegaly is frequently associated with disease control and is safe in relation to fetal and maternal outcomes, as in women without acromegaly.

Caron, P. (2011). "Acromegaly and pregnancy." Annales d Endocrinologie 72(4): 282-286 MEDLINE

                In women with acromegaly due to growth hormone (GH)-secreting pituitary adenomas, the occurrence of pregnancy warrants consideration of: (1) the consequences of pregnancy on the pituitary adenoma including the tumor syndrome and GH/IGF-1 secretion, (2) the consequence of GH/IGF-1 hypersecretion on the pregnant woman and the fetus, (3) the consequences of pituitary surgery and medical treatment (dopamine agonists, somatostatin analogs, GH receptor antagonist) on the pregnant woman and the developing fetus.

Jallad, R. S., et al. (2018). "Outcome of pregnancies in a large cohort of women with acromegaly." Clinical Endocrinology 88(6): 896-907 MEDLINE

OBJECTIVE: To assess the outcome of pregnancies in a large cohort of women with acromegaly.

DESIGN AND METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of 31 pregnancies in 20 patients with acromegaly.

RESULTS: Twenty-seven pregnancies resulted in healthy offspring, and 4 resulted in abortion. Three patients underwent transsphenoidal surgery during pregnancy. IGF-1 levels remained elevated during pregnancy in 4 pregnancies and normalized in 23 cases. Fifteen cases were followed during pregnancy without any medical or surgical treatment, and 13 of these exhibited normal IGF-1 levels. Before or during pregnancy, somatostatin receptor ligands usage was not associated with higher risk for adverse outcomes. Arterial hypertension worsening (45%) and impairment of glucose levels (32%) were the most common complications during pregnancies. There were no maternal or neonatal deaths. One woman delivered twins. Two cases of congenital malformations and one with foetal macrosomia were observed. Caesarean delivery was performed in sixteen cases.

CONCLUSION: Our study confirms the impact of gestation on IGF-1 levels. However, it also indicates that acromegaly still holds an increased risk for worsening of comorbidities, especially in uncontrolled patients.

Motivala, S., et al. (2011). "Pituitary disorders during pregnancy." Endocrinology & Metabolism Clinics of North America 40(4): 827-836 MEDLINE

                The pituitary gland undergoes much anatomic and physiologic variation during pregnancy. Pituitary disease may have a significant impact on a patient prior to conception as well as throughout her pregnancy. It is imperative to provide care to patients affected by pituitary disease with a multidisciplinary approach involving endocrinologists, obstetricians and, when appropriate, neurosurgical care, as this group of disorders can represent a substantial level of morbidity and mortality for both mother and fetus.

Wiesli, P., et al. (2006). "Pregnancy-induced changes in insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3), and acid-labile subunit (ALS) in patients with growth hormone (GH) deficiency and excess." Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica 85(8): 900-905 MEDLINE

BACKGROUND: Under most circumstances with altered growth hormone (GH) secretion, the changes of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3), and acid-labile subunit (ALS) are in parallel. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of pregnancy in a hypopituitary patient with those of pregnancy in an acromegalic patient on IGF-I, IGFBP-3, and ALS.

METHODS AND RESULTS: IGF-I and ALS were low before pregnancy in the hypopituitary patient under glucocorticoid and thyroxine treatment. Gonadotropin treatment allowed her to become pregnant; IGF-I and ALS levels rose in the second half of pregnancy and fell again after delivery. IGF-I concentrations were elevated in the patient with persistent acromegaly before and dropped into the normal range during the first half of pregnancy. In the second half of pregnancy and following delivery, IGF-I levels increased again. IGFBP-3 levels (as assessed by immunoblot analysis as well as by 125I-IGF II ligand blotting) decreased markedly during pregnancy in both patients, suggesting that the placenta rather than pituitary GH regulates IGFBP-3 proteolysis in human pregnancy. The increase of IGF-I (and ALS) during the second half of pregnancy in the individual with pituitary GH deficiency may be attributed to placental GH. The fall of IGF-I (and ALS) into the normal range in the acromegalic patient during the first trimester of pregnancy may be related to decreased production or decreased half-life of these proteins.

CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that measures to continuously replace GH or to suppress GH secretion during pregnancy in patients with GH deficiency or excess, respectively, may not be warranted.




Web resources

. Available via CIAP