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Bankstown Hospital - Grand Rounds - Further Reading

A guide to further information resources to support Grand Rounds and vocational education



Welcome to the Grand Rounds Further Reading List, Psychiatry edition, brought to you by the Clinical Library, on Level 4, next to the Auditorium.

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“Neuropsychiatric Manifestations of Lupus


Bortoluzzi, A., et al. (2018). "Attribution of neuropsychiatric manifestations to systemic lupus erythematosus." Frontiers in Medicine 5: 68 . Full TEXT @ LINK

Neuropsychiatric (NP) involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is one of the most severe manifestations of the disease that has a heavy impact on patient’s functioning, quality of life, and disease outcome. The prevalence is highly variable and the clinical phenotypes vary from common syndromes to rare NP entities. Its occurrence may be the result of a primary manifestation of SLE, secondary to other conditions (such as infections or metabolic disturbances) or the effect of concomitant comorbidities that often complicate the disease course. Correct attribution of NP events may pose diagnostic challenges and it is a critical factor in selecting the correct management. Although there is still no diagnostic gold standard to rightly diagnose NPSLE syndromes, great advances have been made in improving the clinician judgment in the evaluation process. In this narrative review, we present and discuss available evidence concerning NPSLE with a special focus on the attribution models developed using composite decision rules to ascribe NP events to SLE.       


Carrión-Barberà, I., et al. (2021). " Neuropsychiatric involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus: a review." Autoimmunity Reviews 20(4): 102780 FULL TEXT @ LINK

The neuropsychiatric involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE) is a challenge for clinicians, both at a diagnostic and therapeutic level. Although in 1999 the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) proposed a set of definitions for 19 NPSLE syndromes, with the intention of homogenizing the terminology for research purposes and clinical practice, the prevalence of NPSLE varies widely according to different series and is estimated to be between 37 and 95%. This is due to multiple factors such as the unalike definitions used, the diverse design of the studies, type of population, race, type and severity of symptoms, and follow-up of the different cohorts of patients with SLE. In recent years, some authors have tried excluding minor neuropsychiatric manifestations in order to try to reduce this wide variation in the prevalence of NPSLE since they are very prevalent in the general population; others authors have developed various models for the attribution of neuropsychiatric events to SLE that can assist clinicians in this diagnostic process, and finally, some authors developed and validated in 2014 a new algorithm based on the definitions of the ACR that includes the evaluation of the patient's lupus activity together with imaging techniques and the analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), with the aim of trying to differentiate the true neuropsychiatric manifestations attributable to SLE. In 2010, the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) developed recommendations for the management of NPSLE. We found abundant literature published later where, in addition to the recommendations for the management of the 19 NPSLE syndromes defined by the ACR, additional recommendations are given for other neurological and/or psychiatric syndromes, conditions, and complications that have been associated to SLE in recent years. We review below the diagnostic and therapeutic management of the different entities.

Govoni, M., et al. (2016). "The diagnosis and clinical management of the neuropsychiatric manifestations of lupus." Journal of Autoimmunity 74: 41-72 REQUEST ARTICLE

            Neuropsychiatric (NP) involvement in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE), can be a severe and troubling manifestation of the disease that heavily impacts patient’s health, quality of life and disease outcome. It is one of the most complex expressions of SLE which can affect central, peripheral and autonomous nervous system. Complex interrelated pathogenetic mechanisms, including genetic factors, vasculopathy, vascular occlusion, neuroendocrine-immune imbalance, tissue and neuronal damage mediated by autoantibodies, inflammatory mediators, blood brain barrier dysfunction and direct neuronal cell death can be all involved. About NPSLE a number of issues are still matter of debate: from classification and burden of NPSLE to attribution and diagnosis. The role of neuroimaging and new methods of investigation still remain pivotal and rapidly evolving as well as is the increasing knowledge in the pathogenesis. Overall, two main pathogenetic pathways have been recognized yielding different clinical phenotypes: a predominant ischemic-vascular one involving large and small blood vessels, mediated by aPL, immune complexes and leuko-agglutination which it is manifested with more frequent focal NP clinical pictures and a predominantly inflammatory-neurotoxic one mediated by complement activation, increased permeability of the BBB, intrathecal migration of autoantibodies, local production of immune complexes and pro-inflammatory cytokines and other inflammatory mediators usually appearing as diffuse NP manifestations. In the attempt to depict a journey throughout NPSLE from diagnosis to a reasoned therapeutic approach, classification, epidemiology, attribution, risk factors, diagnostic challenges, neuroimaging techniques and pathogenesis will be considered in this narrative review based on the most relevant and recent published data.

Sarwar, S., et al. (2021). "Neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus: a 2021 update on diagnosis, management, and current challenges." Cureus 13(9):  FULL TEXT @ LINK

Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) experience neuropsychiatric symptoms. The term neuropsychiatric SLE (NPSLE) is a generic term that refers to a series of neurological and psychiatric symptoms directly related to SLE. In approximately 30% of patients with neuropsychiatric symptoms, SLE is the primary cause (NPSLE), and symptoms manifest more frequently around SLE onset. Neurovascular and psychotic conditions can also lead to NPSLE. Pathogenesis of NPSLE is implicated in both neuroinflammatory and ischemic mechanisms, and it is associated with high morbidity and mortality. After diagnosing and assigning causality, NPSLE treatment is individualized according to the type of neuropsychiatric manifestations, type of the predominant pathway, activity of SLE, and severity of the clinical manifestations. There are many problems to be addressed with regards to the diagnosis and management of NPSLE. Controlled clinical trials provide limited guidance for management, and observational cohort studies support symptomatic, antithrombotic, and immunosuppressive agents. The purpose of this review was to provide a detailed and critical review of the literature on the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of NPSLE. This study aimed to identify the shortcoming in diagnostic biomarkers, novel therapies against NPSLE, and additional research needs.


Yoon, S., et al. (2019). "Psychiatric symptoms in systemic lupus erythematosus: diagnosis and treatment." Journal of Rheumatic Diseases 26(2): 93-103 FULL TEXT @ LINK

According to the American College of Rheumatology classification, lupus erythematosus has five psychiatric manifestations, including cognitive dysfunction, mood disorder, anxiety disorder, psychosis, and acute confusional state, which are frequently accompanied by other symptoms. Cognitive dysfunction is the most common psychiatric manifestation in lupus patients with a prevalence rate ranging from 20% to 80%. The expression of psychiatric manifestations has been considered to be associated with disease activity, side effects of medications, and/or psychosocial stresses from the chronicity of lupus, but this has not been fully understood. Appropriate management of psychiatric symptoms is essential as it affects treatment adherence and quality of life. This review aimed to facilitate understanding of psychiatric manifestations of lupus through literature review on the prevalence, clinical features, diagnosis, and treatments of each psychiatric symptom.


Zuniga Zambrano, Y. C., et al. (2014). "Risk Factors for Neuropsychiatric Manifestations in Children With Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Case-Control Study." Pediatric Neurology 51(3): 403-409 FULL TEXT @ LINK

            Background Neuropsychiatric symptoms in children with systemic lupus erythematosus cause high morbidity and disability. This study analyzed risk factors associated with neuropsychiatric presentation in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus aged <18 years. Methods A case-control study was performed. Medical record information of patients with a diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus who were hospitalized with or without neuropsychiatric symptoms was collected between March 2007 and January 2012. Clinical variables, laboratory examinations, neuroimages, and disease activity (Systemic Erythematosus Lupus Disease Activity Index) and damage (Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics) indices were analyzed. Results A total of 90 patients were selected, 30 with neuropsychiatric symptoms. The patients' average age was 12.2 years. The most common neuropsychiatric symptoms were seizures, migraine, and depression. The average Systemic Erythematosus Lupus Disease Activity Index was 19.86 (S.D. 10.83) and the average Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics index was 2.02 (S.D. 2.43), with higher values in patients with neuropsychiatric symptoms (P = 0.001). The levels of complement C3 and C4 were significantly higher in patients with a neuropsychiatric disorder (P = 0.003). Lupus anticoagulant was found in 51.5% of patients with neuropsychiatric symptoms (odds ratio, 3.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-10.0). Immunosuppression with azathioprine, rituximab, or cyclophosphamide delayed the time to neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus development by 18.5 months (95% confidence interval, 10.6-26.5) compared to patients who did not receive these agents. Conclusions The presence of lupus anticoagulant was a risk factor in our patients. The use of immunosuppressants, such as cyclophosphamide, rituximab, and azathioprine, delayed the presentation of neuropsychiatric manifestations of lupus.


Web Resources

Psychology & Behavioral Sciences Collection  is an essential full-text database for psychologists, counselors, researchers and students. It provides hundreds of full-text psychology journals, including many indexed in APA PsycInfo. It offers particularly strong coverage in child and adolescent psychology and counseling. Available via Bankstown Hospital Clinical Library's myAthens website. Register for access.