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Bankstown Hospital - Grand Rounds - Further Reading

A guide to further information resources to support Grand Rounds and vocational education


Welcome to the Grand Rounds Further Reading List, Paediatrics edition, brought to you by the Clinical Library, on Level 4, next to the Auditorium.

This library guide is to help support you in your professional development. Please give us feedback so we can improve this list in the future.

Some sections are under construction and will be ready later in the year. If you are presenting at a later Grand Rounds, please contact and tell us about the content of your paper so we can add appropriate resources to the list for when you present your paper.

If you have any questions, please contact the Clinical Library on 9722 8250 or email or visit us Monday to Fridays, 8.30am - 5.00pm.

Journal Articles

Ekberg, S., et al. (2022). "Enhancing paediatric palliative care: A rapid review to inform continued development of care for children with life-limiting conditions." Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health 58(2): 232-237

                Aim Following the establishment of paediatric palliative care services over recent decades, this study sought to identify information to inform future policy and practice. Methods A rapid review using thematic synthesis was conducted to synthesise existing information about improving paediatric palliative care. Information was extracted in relation to key areas for investment and change: quality, access, advance care planning, skills, research, collaboration and community awareness. Results A total of 2228 literature sources were screened, with 369 included. Synthesised information identified clear ways to improve quality of care, access to care, advance care planning, and research and data collection. The synthesis identified knowledge gaps in understanding how to improve skills in paediatric palliative care, collaboration across Australian jurisdictions and community awareness. Conclusions The findings of this review bring together information from a vast range of sources to provide action-oriented information to target investment and change in paediatric palliative care over the coming decades.

Joanna R. G, V., et al. (2022). "Persistent pulmonary hypertension in neonates with perinatal asphyxia and therapeutic hypothermia: a frequent and perilous combination." The Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine 35(25): 4969-4975

 doi: 10.1080/14767058.2021.1873941.

                Therapeutic hypothermia in neonates with perinatal asphyxia may increase the risk of PPHN. This potentially affects outcome.Objectives (1) To investigate whether neonates with perinatal asphyxia and therapeutic hypothermia more often developed PPHN compared to a control group with perinatal asphyxia not treated with hypothermia; (2) To identify risk factors for severe PPHN during hypothermia and evaluate short-term outcome.Methods This single-center retrospective cohort study included (near-)term neonates with perinatal asphyxia admitted between 2004 and 2016. Neonates with perinatal asphyxia and hypothermia were compared to a historical control group without hypothermia. Primary outcome was PPHN, defined as severe hypoxemia requiring mechanical ventilation and inhaled nitric oxide, confirmed by echocardiography. Short-term adverse outcome was defined as mortality within one month and/or severe brain injury on MRI.Results Incidence of PPHN was 23% (26/114) in the hypothermia group and 11% (8/70) in controls. In multivariate analysis, PPHN was 2.5 times more common among neonates with hypothermia. Neonates developing PPHN during hypothermia often had higher fraction of inspired oxygen at baseline. PPHN was not associated with a higher risk of severe brain injury. However, early mortality was higher and three infants died due to severe refractory PPHN during hypothermia.Conclusions In this study PPHN occurred more often since the introduction of therapeutic hypothermia. This was usually reversible and did not lead to overall increased adverse outcome. However, in individual cases with PPHN deterioration occurred rapidly. In such cases the benefits of hypothermia should be weighed against the risk of a complicated, fatal course.

Sequera-Ramos, L., et al. (2022). "Noninvasive ventilation in children: A review for the pediatric anesthesiologist." Pediatric Anesthesia 32(2): 262-272

                Abstract Preserving adequate respiratory function is essential in the perioperative period. Mechanical ventilation with endotracheal intubation is widely used for this purpose. In select patients, noninvasive ventilation (NIV) may be an alternative to invasive ventilation or may complement respiratory management. NIV is used to provide ventilatory support and increase gas exchange at the alveolar level without the use of an invasive artificial airway such as an endotracheal tube or tracheostomy. NIV includes both continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and noninvasive positive pressure ventilation. Indications for NIV range from acute hypoxic respiratory failure in the intensive care unit or the emergency department, to chronic respiratory failure in patients with neuromuscular disease with nocturnal hypoventilation. In the perioperative setting, NIV is commonly applied as CPAP, and bilevel positive airway pressure (BPAP). There are limited data on the role of NIV in children in the perioperative setting, and there are no clear guidelines regarding optimal timing of use and pressure settings of perioperative NIV. Contraindications to the use of NIV include reduced level of consciousness, apnea, severe respiratory distress, and inability to maintain upper airway patency or airway protective reflexes. Common problems encountered during NIV involve airway leaks and asynchrony with auto-triggering. High-flow nasal oxygen (HFNO) has emerged as an alternative to NIV when trying to decrease the work of breathing and improve oxygenation in children. HFNO delivers humidified and heated oxygen at rates between 2 and 70 L/min using specific nasal cannulas, and flows are determined by the patient's weight and clinical needs. HFNO can be useful as a method for preoxygenation in infants and children by prolonging apnea time before desaturation, yet in children with decreased minute ventilation or apnea HFNO does not improve alveolar gas exchange. Clinicians experienced with these devices, such as pediatric intensivists and pulmonary medicine specialists, can be useful resources for the pediatric anesthesiologist caring for complex patients on NIV.

Singh, P., et al. (2023). "Management of neonatal pulmonary hypertension-a survey of neonatal intensive care units in India." BMC Pediatrics 23(1): 149

                Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) is a common neonatal condition associated with significant morbidity and mortality. First-line diagnostic and treatment options such as echocardiography and inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) are not routinely available in resource limited settings and alternative treatment modalities need to be utilized. This study was conducted to assess current diagnostic and management strategies used for PPHN in Indian neonatal intensive care units (NICUs).



Web resources

AMH Children's Dosing Companion. Available via CIAP

BNF for Children:  Guidance on the actions and uses of drugs prescribed in the UK for children. Available via CIAP

MD Calc - medical calculator. Available via CIAP

Medicines for Children.  Available via CIAP

NETS Clinical Calculator  Available via CIAP


Cochrane Neonatal podcasts.

Short summaries of recent Cochrane reviews on neonatal practice. Available in multiple language. 

Neonatal Conversations

A podcast where clinical experts in neonatal intensive care discuss how they provide care for the critically ill newborn. Available as Apple, Spotify and Google podcasts.

NICU Ride & Review

An educational podcast for clinicians who care for newborns, featuring discussions with faculty at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center.